Sentidos subjetivos: su rol estructural en las políticas de inclusión social
This article identifies the need to integrate subjectivity and real social relationships in public policies oriented to increase social cohesion. Based on more than 15 years of human development reports in Chile,it criticizes the linear logic of rational incentives that assumes the creation of opportunities and the design of correct incentives suffice to produce social integration,implicit in the design of many social policies. This logic depends on narrow (and often erroneous) assumptions about human behavior. It proposes an alternative approach that recognizes the influence of formal institutions,culture,individual human subjectivity and social practices in the production of the results of social policies. This approach highlights the role of interests and multiple meanings orienting individual action,as well as the decisive role played by cultural contexts and subjective valuation of opportunities and incentives offered by public policies. These social conditionings on individual motivation are not,nevertheless,static,but are objects of ongoing permanent production. Public policies are a factor,whether or not intentional,of this process. It is suggested to explicitly integrate this role not only to improve our understanding of social challenges,but also to deliberate and negotiate social ends. In analytical terms,this entails integrate in the design of public policies the ideal images of the subject,the dynamics of credibility and trust of social compromises,and the legitimization of time horizons for sacrifice and future delivery.
In practical terms,the proposal is to co-build social policies through deliberative processes. These processes should identify the real experience of exclusion and the factors involved in its production. They should also clarify the alternative meanings and purposes capable of mobilizing the participants. In this deliberation,the stakeholders must define the ends,final and intermediates,of social policies,and the means,institutional and cultural,to produce those ends. The ends must be formulated in terms of compromises that must be credible. Participants must believe that if they make their sacrifice today they will get what they expect in the future. This requires the creation of long time horizons and intermediate compromises,to reinforce the credibility of the final end. As policies might fail to deliver intermediate ends,evaluative mechanisms must be established to monitor fulfillment,learn from mistakes through social deliberation and make the necessary corrections to the means of delivery. The higher the development of the country,the higher are the expectations and the shorter the time horizon for waiting for what is expected. Therefore,the need to produce cultural meanings,long time horizons and credibility are higher. It is also important that the deliberation process takes place at the local level such that it takes into account the characteristics of a given territory. The document develops examples,particularly from educational policies directed to the school or preschool level.
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Institución: Universidad Alberto HurtadoFacultad: Ciencias SocialesUnidad: CISOC